[speaker] Wang Jianxin, China Jinggangshan cadre college professor, Deputy Dean
[Mao Zedong] lecture comprehension modify poetry art and realm
Mao Zedong, in what aspects modify Poetry
Two, how to modify the poems of Mao Zedong
Three, from Mao Zedong to revise poems, we can get what enlightenment
Dear friends, hello. In November 8, 2017, 138479.xyz opened a "Wang Jianxin" column in expert column, provides a platform for users to exchange and I also make the poems of Mao Zedong, my research experience to showcase. It is a year of time, first of all to thank the support and love 138479.xyz and the majority of users to me.
Marx Mao Zedong is a great Marxist, great proletarian revolutionary, strategist and theorist, is also a leading poet. Mao Zedong with a powerful pen, wrote the immortal chapter, perpendicular and horizontal momentum extraordinary, is an artistic peak Chinese poetic world.
The number of Mao Zedong's poems is not too much. Careful comparative analysis of Mao Zedong's poems, it is not difficult to find, the vast majority of works have changed several times. From the title, the individual words, the whole poem, to the discourse structure, and even punctuation, he changed again. This makes Mao Zedong's poetry accurate words, antithesis neat, full of flavor, a poetic masterpiece through the ages.
Today, I want to modify the situation of Mao Zedong's poems as a comb. Mainly talk about three issues: one is Mao Zedong in what aspects modify poetry; the two is Mao Zedong how to modify poetry; three is what we can get inspiration from.
China Professor, Jinggangshan Institute of vice president Wang Jianxin guest 138479.xyz (Cao Miao photo)
Mao Zedong from the nine aspects of poetry modification
I about the first question: Mao Zedong in what aspects modify poetry?
Mao Zedong revised the poems there are two situations, one is to modify the works of others, the two is to revise their work. In some of Mao Zedong's poetry appreciation in the book into the works by others to modify the works. For example, in 1910, Mao Zedong left Shaoshan to study when writing a seven - "father": "a child to a native, not famous oath not to have. Why resting their homeland, life without castle." This poem is written by Nigo Takamori Japanese said, that is a Japanese monk month write, Mao Zedong of the original poem "man" to "child" to "death is not" to "vow also". Exactly speaking, this is not his work.
Mao Zedong's change of his own works, mainly reflected in the following aspects:
One is the theme of change. "Stories of Kunlun" the content of implicit, not easy to understand. There is a saying: "one piece for Europe, one for America, a China interception." In December 1958, he notes: "Kunlun: the theme is to oppose imperialism, not the other. A: a change to a Chinese interception, in the east. Forget Japanese is wrong. In this way, Britain, the United States and Japan all involved. Other explanation, not practical." Since then, people's understanding of the poem is consistent. Mao Zedong gave the sword in the Kunlun Mountains, also think of the Japanese people, showing a broad mind. This change makes the purport of the works suddenly sublimation, endowed with profound connotation of new.
Two is the title of the modification works. Poetry title, poetry features, has an important role. The title has changed several times some of Mao Zedong's works. After that, the theme is more prominent and clear. For example, "niannujiao Kunlun" once called "niannujiao onto Minshan". "Swim" is the original "Prelude To Water Melody Prelude To Water Melody - Yangtze River". "Dielianhua a Li Shuyi" first "immortals", then "Youxian - to Li Shuyi", and finally to a "Li Shuyi" dielianhua.
Three is the time of writing clearly. 1957 "poetry" magazine published 18 Works of Mao Zedong, the people's literature published in the May 1962 issue of Mao Zedong "six words", almost did not indicate the time of writing. Published in 1963, "Chairman Mao poetry", Mao Zedong carefully solved this problem, marked each poem creation time. For example, "Qinyuanchun - Changsha" is "1925", "Bodhisattva", "Yellow Crane Tower is the spring of 1927", "xijiangyue Jinggangshan" is the "1928 autumn", "Snow" is "in 1936 February". Historical background and profound meaning which helps readers to accurately grasp the work.
Four is the deletion of the words of. "Mount Lu" original Qilv onto a small order: "in June 29, 1959 at Mount Lu, Poyang Lake, the Yangtze River, Luan 1000 where the sun Fang Sheng, a poem of eight words." This text introduces the process of writing poetry, though, but to grasp the artistic mood and not much help, but the limitations of the reader's imagination. The work was published, Mao Zedong deleted this sentence.
The five is to adjust the structure of works. "Picking mulberries, Chongyang" manuscript: "once a year autumn fresh, not like spring. Is the spring scenery, liaokuo Jiang Tian Wan cream. God easy life difficult for the old, old chongyang. This double ninth, battlefield exceptionally fragrant yellow flowers." The work was published, Mao Zedong put on the upper and lower order are exchanged and reversed. The work starts after the adjustment, from the poetic, towering tall and straight, put the reader into the works to express the deep thought; in the end the scenery, can trigger the reader to read the feelings, infinite charm.
Six is the transformation of the poem. In different Mao Zedong poetry manuscripts, some sentences vary greatly, some belong to the text content of the adjustment of deepening, some are completely change the meaning of the poem.
"Yi Qin e -" Loushanguan "wild geese cry under the frosty morning moon" one is modified from "Chinese parasol tree and Flower Festival". "Seven - to Shaoshan" the last sentence "over 300 stops, there have been people over millions of years" "characters from the two argument Zhengrong Sheng". For example, "Jinggangshan", "Prelude To Water Melody, heavy more gurgling water everywhere the joys of spring," a, the original is "virgin red to green, more flies ip". Obviously, after the modification of the sentence, more vivid, more rich flavor.
The seven is to improve the individual words. "Xijiangyue," Autumn Harvest Uprising "kuanglu area not to stay, Xiaoxiang straight into" one, "kuanglu" original "repair copper", refers to the Jiangxi Province, Xiushui drums, "Xiaoxiang" original "Ping Liu", referring to the Hunan province Pingjiang, Liuyang, is the name of the county too realistic. After the modification, used to represent the names of famous silk, more full of a quality suggestive of poetry or painting.
"Jinggangshan", "Prelude To Water Melody - heavy high into the clouds" in the "high road", the original is "high tree". The tree is the natural growth, the road is artificially built. From the "tree" to "high road", echoing in front of a "old city", directly showing "over the past thirty-eight years after the vicissitudes, and the weight is also more consistent with the subjective feelings of Jinggangshan.
Eight is the correct individual typo. "Bodhisattva - Yellow Crane Tower" was first published, "wine" surging "in the" obligation "written" proof ". "Proof" is a noun, refers to two or more times after brewing wine, "wine surging proof" illogical, "" this is obviously a word. "Lei" is a verb, refers to the wine on the ground, said the memorial and swear, "Su Dongpo Chibi" nostalgia "stories - a bottle of Jiang also sprinkle on" one of the "obligation", is this meaning. The "proof" to "obligation", is consistent with the syntax, can accurately express the memory of the revolutionary martyrs of the state of mind.
"Two songs" who sent by thousands of people Yi Shi Village pumila "in" Bili ", the original" Li xue". Ficus pumila is a vine, "Li Xue" is not mutual collocation, semantic ambiguity, modified expression of weeds, smoothly done or easily solved the problem.
The nine is the change of punctuation. "Poetry" magazine published in 1957, Yellow Crane Tower "Bodhisattva", "where the upper and lower Yellow Hezhi, visitors at the left. The wine cup is surging, emotionally by waves." In the 1963 publication of the "Chairman Mao poetry", instead of "Huang Hezhi where to go? Visitors at the left. The wine cup is surging, emotionally by waves!" A comma before sentence into a question mark, highlighted the "on the eve of the failure of the great revolution in the mood of desolation, don't know how to do that" lost and confused mood. After a period at the end of the sentence into an exclamation mark, spoke more sure, more intense, more resolute attitude, better contrast Mao Zedong "emotions" surging mental state.
"Prelude To Water Melody - swimming", "South Bridge Feijia natural moat change thoroughfare" a middle position of a comma, move it several times. Sometimes is a bridge across the north and south, natural moat change thoroughfare ";" sometimes is a bridge across the north and south, natural moat change thoroughfare". After repeated weighing, was identified as "a bridge across the north and south, natural moat change thoroughfare".
His repeated modifications, a poem thousand to peace
Now I want to talk about second issues: how to modify the Mao Zedong poetry?
Mao Zedong revised the poem, specific situation is very complex. Some are random, some are deliberately; some of their own changes, some experts help embellish some is adopted to improve readers' suggestions.
First, not deliberately modify the gander.
Mao Zedong poetry words the rich change, there are quite a few are present in his handwriting. Many of his works have left some manuscripts, also left many pieces of handwriting. For example, "seven - to Shaoshan" two pieces of handwriting; "congratulation to the bridegroom, don't have three" friends "and" handwriting; Prelude To Water Melody swimming four stories - "Kunlun handwriting;" Five "Qinyuanchun - Changsha handwriting;" six handwriting; "Snow" ten a handwriting.
These manuscripts are in different periods, different places and different state of mind, wrote for different people for different purposes. He is not in control of poetry but by every single word or phrase copy, memory, from memory. Plus he has been writing poems, writing the passage of time, feeling and thinking, may have undergone subtle changes, the text appears the difference is also reasonable.
For example, the "Qinyuanchun" and "Changsha cenglinjinran" as "cengluan exhaustion", "mid stream water" as "to stream water"; the "Qilu Long March" "the trials of a long journey only becomes" written "," more like the trials of a long journey to the "Hi Minshan snow thousands of miles" as "the most hi Minshan thousands of miles of snow" to "Qilv, and Mr. Liu Yazi" "energy-saving" as "Laochou too heartbroken" and so on. These words are relatively close, meaning there are no substantive changes in verse.
Sometimes, the relatively large changes in verse. For example, "friends" and "congratulation to the bridegroom - don't sick, if a day", some "have not written script: yilou", some handwriting as "heavy emotion, tears like rain". For example, "Manjianghong, comrade Guo Moruo" and "the seas are rising Yunshui anger, Wuzhou shock thunder shock", second, third pieces of manuscripts written "revolutionary spirit over the world, workers and peasants to smoke halberd", fourth pieces of manuscripts written "revolutionary spirit over the world, workers and peasants to play a halberd". This situation could not completely finalized the relevant works and.
Second, his repeated, one thousand poems to peace of mind.
By the end of 1956, China Writers Association as for "poetry" magazine, Xu Chi collected from the society of Mao Zedong's eight poems, the editorial board has sent a letter to Mao Zedong: "because they are not published, the mutual copy that textual reading, quite different. Some comrades advised us: to let these poems spread, is the request permission, issued a final." Mao Zedong attaches great importance to the work of each correction, also provides ten pieces, replied: "since you think can be published, but also for the first few have made the error correction, according to your advice."
1963, in the 70 birthday approaching, Mao Zedong himself will be more satisfied with the work together, in addition to already published 21 poem, increase the "people's Literature" 1962 5 published 6 word, also added 10 the first unpublished works. He devoted a lot of effort, these poems do a comprehensive revision. This is the 1963 of the people's Literature Publishing House "Chairman Mao poetry" first 37.
Wu Xujun recalls: from March 1963 to 1973 winter, Mao Zedong of all poems re read several times, some of the poems made many changes. Modified by Wu Xujun for the record, when set down scrutiny good sentences, Mao Zedong personally wrote the manuscript, and then told her to modify records burned. The winter of 1973, he told Wu Xujun to copy all the poems. Mao Zedong. So again, Mao Zedong shows the degree of attention to modify the work.
Third, ask the experts to make corrections, picking flowers into honey.
Mao Zedong revised the poem, but not otherwise, benefit by mutual discussion. The 1963 edition of "Chairman Mao poetry thirty-seven poems" published before the first printed some comments of this. New year's day in 1964, Mao Zedong commissioned Tian Jiaying invited Zhu De, Peng Zhen and other central leaders, Deng Xiaoping and Guo Moruo, Zang Kejia and other poets, held a forum to seek the views of. The conference table, put a few pieces of note written by Mao Zedong, a write: "I write these things, please discuss." Zang Kejia made 23 comments prepared to Tian Jiaying. After the publication of Zang Kejia Mao Zedong poetry, adopted his 13 comments.
"Qilv onto Mount Lu" "jump on the verdant four hundred spin" a, is the original "desire runs four hundred spin", "to Guo Moruo that" runs "four words, read like a pause into feeling, easy to" quasi Tanzania road winds ". The wind blowing rain River "a, is the original" hot air blowing rain south". Guo Moruo "and" feel indifferent to the ocean view of the world "is not co harmonic. As to "warm rain and essential" to express the great leap forward, it is clear." Then the final clearly refers to the views of Guo Moruo.
"Snow" "wax" "wax", originally the word "La" is lamei. Zang Kejia said: "such as writing" wax "word is better," is like wax 'and' Snake 'to reflect the above." Mao Zedong nodded and said: "well, then you can change it for me." Such a change, more and more rich poetic image. For example, "Qilu - to Shaoshan" "don't dream I curse the river" in the "Curse", is the original "crying", this is according to the Deputy Secretary of Hubei provincial Party committee, the writer views the white plum. Mao Zedong said to him: "you are my" half word division "."
Fourth, the adoption of readers suggest that listening to the sound stream flow.
"Qilu Long March" original "Five Ridges gentle ripples" Jinsha "yunya warm waves beat". New year's day in 1952, Professor Luo Yuanzhen of Shanxi University history department sent a letter to Mao Zedong, suggested that the modified "waves" to "water". In December 21, 1958, Mao Zedong in the "Chairman Mao poetry nineteen poems" comment on head said: "the water waves beat beat: change. This is an unknown friend suggested such change. He said: don't a two wave of words, can be."
At the beginning of 1957, "poetry" published 18 poems of Mao Zedong works, a primary school, a student at the Fudan University, Tai county of Jiangsu Province, Fujian province Nanping County principal reader Chen Zhi et al., specially sent a letter to Mao Zedong, pointed out that "Bodhisattva - Yellow Crane Tower" in the "wine" surging proof "proof", is a mistake we should use the "obligation". Mao Zedong after reading, let the central office secretary of the room to give them back, tell them what advice is right.
Not arrogant, open-minded Bocaiyinchang
Now, I come to talk about third issues: from Mao Zedong to revise poems, we can get what enlightenment?
Mao Zedong's poems are perfect to modify the sequence of events, the process will help us better understand Mao Zedong's poetry and profound connotation, to better grasp the intrinsic reason of Mao Zedong's poetry creation success, especially prompted us to comprehend, to learn Mao Zedong's creative spirit, strict in demands very modest learning attitude and perfect artistic pursuit.
First, Mao Zedong treats the works of excellence, never do things carelessly, but changed again, strive for perfection.
The Tang Dynasty poet Jia Dao in "the monk pushed under the door" and "monk" between constant scrutiny, perseverance and allusions, widespread, profound influence. It is an epitome of the ancient men of literature and writing rigorous and careful creation spirit.
The poem is written, but also changed out. Can Chukouchengzhang, one, of course something. But the majority of poetry works were repeatedly polished into. Du Fu "Twelve first" as a poem: "cultivate the spirit deposit substrate changed from the Long Yin poetry." His "river water potential value as the" short talk wrote: "for humanity secluded delays sentences, dull remarks died." The Qing Dynasty poet Yuan Mei "followed by" also have "hobby origin of a poem to thousands of strokes to start the" peace of mind this verse. Qing Li Yi in "autumn poetry" Xing Ge, speak more clearly: "poetry can paper? Can be changed, is perfect for the rubble for Yu, Zhu yu." These are the literati the wise remark of an experienced person.
Mao Zedong inherited the fine tradition of poets writing poetry batted the. He had a famous saying: "the world is afraid of" seriously "two words, the Communist Party most seriously." Seriously, is an attitude, a spirit, a kind of style. Mao Zedong in his poems, not only seriously, and seriously. He has never been to poetry and writing poetry, but as a true portrayal of values, political aspirations, and strive for life times. He published on its own is not satisfied with the work of no; published works, the changing of artistic excellence, excellence, responsible, responsible for their own, responsible for reader, responsible for history.
Mao Zedong knows the poetry creation difficult: "the poem is difficult, not easy to write, experience fish such as drinking water, no need to let others know also know if I am cold or warm." In November 4, 1963, he said: "some poems can not be used, to be modified, writing and poetry, without modification is very few. Why should the revised? And even scratch? Because the text is incorrect, or the idea is good, but the writing performance is not good...... I want to change, sometimes consult others. People have different views, I think." On 1958, he said: "the white plum poetry to be changed, not only to please people, but mainly rely on ourselves. Put a period to see, again, there may be some change well. This is the so-called "deliberate" benefits."
Second, Mao Zedong has been awarded poems is very low-key, but never big with pride of continuous improvement, continuous improvement.
In October 1937, Edgar Snow's "Red Star over China" published in London, book income "Qilu Long March" a poem, in February 1938, the book version of "Red Star over China" published in Shanghai, "Qilu Long March" is the earliest published poems of Mao Zedong, since then, Mao Zedong's famous talented poet.
Mao Zedong's poetry achievements, won praise can reach the peak of perfection. Liu Yazi read "Snow", "Mao Runzhi" overwhelmed with admiration for, "Qinyuanchun que, push for more than David, although his poetic masterpiece through the ages, and still more, whether to fall far behind, the Southern Song Dynasty poem manci." The evaluation of Mao Zedong Guo Moruo is "economy, more than Mount Taishan and the North Star poetry". The poet Chen Yi also to "poetry country push leader" praised Mao Zedong's poetry.
But Mao Zedong himself is very low-key. 1 1939 31, "Mao Zedong wrote in a letter to the road agency": "ask me about poetry, I am a layman, can not say a piece of advice." In January 12, 1957, he wrote to the editor of "poetry" Zang Kejia's letter: "these things, I always do not want to officially published, because the old body, even mislead young people; and circulation of false reports, poetic flavor is not much, not what features."
In July 1, 1958, he said in a letter to Hu Qiaomu: "can't sleep sleep, wrote two poems for propaganda, killing Schistosoma japonicum. Would you please with the "people's Daily" literary group of comrades to discuss, see available? If any change, please tell me." 7 1965 21, Mao Zedong wrote to Chen Yi: "you ask me to change the poem, I can't change, because I have never learned Chinese law, and has not made a verse....... I once wrote a few poem, no one is satisfied with my own. Would you like to write free verse, I for short sentence words to learn a little to understand. Jian Yingshan "s Qilv, Dong Laoshan five, you have to learn the poem, can consult them."
The Tang Dynasty poet Zhang Jiuling "and" Yuyong Huangmen Lu Shi bamboo poem cloud: "high day people, known to the world." Because Mao Zedong has always been the attitude, mentality and behavior, the words kept low-key, never boast, never complacent, he will be so calm and calm to look at their own works, so unremittingly Lian Lian word meanings, it is thoroughly tempered. This is a kind of art of endless creative attitude, is a kind of self - cultivation of the spirit of personality.
Third, Mao Zedong treats consisted of great respect, never arrogant, but very modest, learn widely from others'strong points.
The relationship between Mao Zedong and many famous poets such as Liu Yazi, Huang Yanpei close, Guo Moruo, Zang Kejia, etc.. They are the famous literati poet. Liu Yazi is proud, but he is also convinced of Mao Zedong. In the face of "Snow", he sincerely said: "Yu Ci domineering, not from the taboo of its mad, Jiyang expressed, as to run, was inferior, but feel Haner."
Mao Zedong is always with an open mind, and consisted of equal communication, learning skills. Liu Yazi, Huang Yanpei, et al. Every new, will be sent to Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong poetry to return, and are often able to see the "reply is such a trial record was" modest. Huang Yanpei is 15 years older than Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong is always called "the beginning of the letter as" old Mr. Huang ren". Mao Zedong and Liu Yazi also have correspondence, sometimes called "the rise of Asian child is" elder brother ", inscribed on Mao Zedong".
At the end of June 1959 and early July, Mao Zedong wrote, "Qilv to Shaoshan" Mount Lu "," Qilu deng. In September 7, 1959 he wrote to Hu Qiaomu: "two poems, please give Comrade Guo Moruo read, to see what is wrong? To improve, is to be." Guo Moruo on the 9 day, the 10 day sent a letter to Hu Qiaomu, feedback their opinions and suggestions. In September 13th, Mao Zedong once again wrote to Hu Qiaomu, said: "Comrade Mo Ruo read two letters, enlighten me, two poems have changed a little words, please give a view of Guo Moruo, asked him to trial, to tell me your opinion!"
In April 24, 1962, in a letter to Zang Kejia, Mao Zedong said: "you give me a few careful modification, change well, I completely agree. What can be changed is not chosen, please enlighten us." In September 25, 1965, Mao Zedong put the "Jinggangshan", "Prelude To Water Melody - heavy bird stories - Q" to Deng Yingchao, said: "the letter sent to consult. If wrong, please change your pain!"
Mao Zedong asked the literary opinion, attitude of humility, words of sincere, is really awesome! Pride hurts, modesty benefits. The friends in poetry by its sincere infection, unreservedly put forward their own proposals. An extended hand, there is no glance. It is undeniable that their valuable comments to Mao Zedong's poems add luster.
Fourth, Mao Zedong treats the reader never bullying, but wenguozexi amiable and easy of approach, learn from you.
People like Mao Zedong's poetry, both literary and artistic elements, but also the social psychological factors. He is the leader of the party and state, is a great leader of the people's China. The general reader found Mao Zedong's poetry flaws, can propose amendments, even bluntly refers to the wrong spelling, not only need to have knowledge, need courage. This situation is unimaginable in China ancient society.
This phenomenon reflects the breadth of mind and feelings of the people of Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong pointed out: "the masses are the real heroes, while we ourselves are often childish and ridiculous, don't understand this, can at least get knowledge." The specific performance of his view of the masses in the poetry creation, is my heart is always filled with readers. Mao Zedong said: "when he wrote, 'I do not always think of how clever", and to take the reader on a completely equal position and attitude." It is this attitude of equality, so that Mao Zedong can seriously and absorb the suggestions. This valuable spirit, especially worthy of our Study hard, always learning.
Well, today I would say this. Thank you for the attention of Internet users. The above is purely personal point of view, if inappropriate, please criticism. Bye！