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Liu Baicheng's translation career

Liu Xu

In December 2018 06, 08:21 source: Journal of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

Original title: Liu Baicheng's translation career

  

During the war, Liu Baicheng and report.

Marshal Liu Baicheng in translation, especially important insights and contributions of military academic translation and translation talents, little is known. Early in the last century at the beginning of 30s, he began to engage in translation work.

The tension in the war environment, he translated many foreign school military works, many entries are used since the first translation and Liu Baicheng. Such as "guerrilla warfare", is Liu Baicheng according to the definition of guerrilla warfare, high mobility combat and sudden attack, the two aspects together, and on the basis of the "historical records" Lee spread the word "Li Guangshan," guerrilla "guerrilla" two words, to create "guerrilla warfare" word.

Adhere to the translation work busily engaged in warfare.

In 1930 4, Liu Baicheng returned from the Soviet secret right and left, arrived in Shanghai. He served as the CPC Central Committee decided to arrange military compiler chief, specializing in military translation work, to provide military materials for military training and around the red armed.

Liu Baicheng alias Lin Zhimu in Shanghai Yuyuan Road, a two storey building, from 1930 to 1931, presided over the translation of "Soviet infantry combat doctrine", the "Soviet school regulations" and "political action" such as how the guerrillas. These valuable military materials were rushed to the Soviet Area, and vigorously promote the construction of the foundation of Chinese red army.

In 1932 he was ordered to serve as the school principal and the Central Soviet Red Army political commissar, presided over the military education and military work, and then transferred to the army chief of staff. In August 1932, Liu Baicheng left and right translation of the Soviet Army Military "explanation", this is our first translated from foreign military military monograph. In November 1932, part of the Red Army officers and men do not speak the tactics in Mountain Warfare phenomenon, Liu Baicheng translation of "Soviet" mountain battle in front, the Central Red Army for the fourth counter encirclement battle reference.

In June 1933, Liu Baicheng from the Soviet Red Army "tactical" in a pro forma cavalry raid "excerpt and plagiarism" one article, for the study of the Red Army commander, in order to improve the level of the Red Army cavalry tactics; in October, he translated textbooks "in front of the Soviet Red Army battle" to "exit, the retreat is a combat style" point of view the Red Army commander, ignoring retreat action, not according to the operational requirements of the phenomenon of corrective deployment retreat in the Red Army; November, he published the "theory of translation of the Soviet Red Army tactical battle category" strategy in theory, the red army cadres understand the three respective research and its significance on the level of war.

In May 1934, a demonstration for coach Liu Baicheng a German infantry unit, the works of Li Puman "coach" class battle group in a book about the "night action two", introduced the night against the charge of assignments and homework two night offensive tactics style, clear answers to the first Red Army Infantry School of troops at night the action in question; anti encirclement battle and the long march in action, he had kept up to more than 300 pages of "the Soviet Red Army headquarters and field service" fatwas from 1933 to 1935, 8, September, continue to complete the translation of the Department for the Red Army troops use fatwas.

At that time, I mainly use the old army for army military situation, Liu Baicheng is also the transformation of the old military forces. In order to correct the old army left in the Red Army in the unequal terms, Liu Baicheng provides a new title for all kinds of people: the officer named commander, soldiers called combatants, the messenger called correspondent, change the name of the cooks, grooms name keeper, porters change the name of the transporter...... These names until today is still in use.

Proceed from the need of military struggle, is the biggest characteristic of Liu Baicheng military translation. Liu Baicheng's translation is at war topics are the most pressing problem. During the Anti Japanese War, he organized the translation and proofreading of the "Soviet infantry combat doctrine" "command" contract law "tactics (upper and lower)", and the Japanese "array" priority "to assassinate fatwa" etc.. In the process of translation, the translation of Liu Baicheng not only focus on the topic to determine from the actual practice, pay attention to guide readers to correctly understand and use the translation.

In December 1938, the Soviet Red Army issued a new "infantry combat doctrine" (the first), to learn the latest combat experience of the Soviet army, defeated the Japanese invaders, Liu Baicheng and left the right translation rules, he also combine with the Eight Route Army Building and combat, carefully written "preface" postscript "postscript", the Eight Route Army military cadres to guide the practical situation in our army, flexible use of these regulations. 1941 in the Eighth Route Army Headquarters sent a "tactical" translation please edit Liu Baicheng. This "contract" is Shimier Soviet tactics, LAF according to Soviet 1929 promulgation of the "Regulations" field research, published in Moscow in the years 1935. A year after this translation and revision in the evaluation of the copy, Liu Baicheng wrote: "this book in the correction by the third against mopping up operations." During the war of liberation, "he began school slightly gap immediately, re adjustment of translation of the" contract ", translation tactics (upper) and compiled" on the Soviet encirclement "pincer attack" on the Soviet zone fortification breakthrough "and other works.

From the translation principle to determine the specific teaching translation to the trial, it is imbued with his efforts

After the establishment of People's Republic of China, Chinese people's Liberation Army Military Academy was established in Nanjing, President Liu Baicheng and political commissar.

The hospital was founded just 3 months, Liu Baicheng was approved by the relevant departments of the Chinese translation of foreign military theory work to be unified translation of the military, and the military theory and military regulations in preparation to be standardized the military "military bulletin" published as a stage, from April 30, 1951 onwards, each staff room of each department, issued Military Academy comments.

At the same time in our army military academy for military standard, the Central People's government military training department of the people's Revolutionary Military Commission military Publication Bureau also launched the work, and please Liu Baicheng as committee director. 9 months to 1951 years, in Liu Baicheng under the guidance of the Bureau, the "military assembly (Draft)". This book is divided into the army, navy and Air Force 3, included about 4650 of the military, the appendix after used a variety of measurement list. In February 7, 1955, Liu Baicheng for "military assembly (Draft)" problems, military training department director of the Department of reply, on the views of military and military mark standard.

Liu Baicheng in the organization, the military academy published in December 1956 a "military picture editing (Draft)". Later, the majority was officially identified as the PLA military, made great contribution to military education.

Liu Baicheng's translation, proofreading and compiling of foreign advanced military theory and numerous achievements, from the principles of translation, translation of the textbooks to the specific instance, it is imbued with his efforts. Liu Baicheng requirements for military translation is very rigorous, either translation or translation of the school, he always tries to precise, accurate, every translation should use a magnifying glass to look after carefully many times, every single word or phrase batted again.

The summer of 1953, he used to leave Dalian the opportunity to proofread the "Soviet Army field regulations (Draft)". The Department of military doctrine has been translated and published, and on the basis of the regulations of the content written materials for teaching. But Liu Baicheng of school translation is not satisfied, he said: "the doctrine is the most basic materials, the military academy is very important, must be very accurate translation, there is talk ambiguously places can not have the slightest mistake." In the case of work is very busy, he still personally school translation and translation, the "battle of Berlin" and other books and Hitler the German surrender.

This year, he was 61 years old, only one had eyes had glaucoma, but he is still holding a magnifying glass by sentence modify, 20 words of the translation he revised 3 times. In his strict and meticulous organization, to do a good doctrine of a word, a good punctuation.

All military translation talents cultivation

Liu Baicheng presided over the work in the hospital nearly 7 years, not only personally led the college textbook compilation, also attaches great importance to military translation talents selection and cultivation, hard to cultivate new China first military translation talents. He proposed to do the military translation must have three conditions, namely, not only to foreign language, but also Chinese, and know more knowledge of military affairs. In order to guide and encourage young military translators, Liu Baicheng specifically for them to write: "military science translation, in experience, in theory, have the basic knowledge of military, nature to study military science; in the Russian culture, must have the ability to excavate the essence of military science; in Chinese cultivation, must have the ability to express the essence of military science." In addition, he also asked them to be strict in demands, close to the reader, with national characteristics. Liu Baicheng often called the translation work of military academic research "faucet", he often said: "the translator as the saying goes: outside the box, jade, your job is to get outside the box, to learn from foreign advanced science and technology and military combat experience is the purpose, improve our level of military theory, to improve our army the ability in the modern war."

Liu Baicheng proficient in Russian, although busy, still take the time to study a foreign language, foreign language habits have long read aloud in the morning. Under his influence, as a translation of the comrades working consciously hard work, after getting up to the campus reading foreign language, gradually formed a system of early reading.

In order to high level, professional translators, he was dedicated to the State Council to press, and wrote to Zhou Enlai to work and apply for special translation backbone to the military academy. For military translators, he often teaches them to say: "one word, will be dead!" He is personally, whether translation is strict in demands, school, he always so precise and accurate, after he hands the military has very high artistic value, but also has considerable authority.

(the author is the people's Liberation Army military history researchers)

(commissioning editor Cao Miao and Xie Lei)
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